Preparation and properties of the following compounds Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates






Sodium oxide is produced by the reaction of sodium with sodium hydroxide, sodium peroxide, or sodium nitrite: [5]

Most of these reactions rely on the reduction of something by sodium, whether it is hydroxide, peroxide, or nitrite.

Burning sodium in air will produce Na2O and about 20% sodium peroxide Na2O2.

Sodium Oxide is a highly insoluble thermally stable. It’s formula is Na2O


Potassium oxide is produced from the reaction of oxygen and potassium; this reaction affords potassium peroxide, K2O2. Treatment of the peroxide with potassium produces the oxide.

Alternatively and more conveniently, K2O is synthesized by heating potassium nitrate with metallic potassium.

Other possibility is to heat potassium peroxide at 500 ° C which decomposes at that temperature giving pure potassium oxide and oxygen.

Potassium hydroxide cannot be further dehydrated to the oxide but it can react with molten potassium to produce it, releasing hydrogen as a byproduct.

Potassium oxide (K2O) is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen. This pale yellow solid, the simplest oxide of potassium, is a rarely encountered, highly reactive compound.


Magnesium oxide is produced by the calcination of magnesium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide. The latter is obtained by the treatment of magnesium chloride solutions, typically seawater, with lime.

MgO is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide). It has an empirical formula of MgO and consists of a lattice of Mg2 + ions and O2− ions held together by ionic bonding.


Calcium oxide is usually made by the thermal decomposition of materials, such as limestone or seashells, that contain calcium carbonate (CaCO3; mineral calcite) in a lime kiln. This is accomplished by heating the material to above 825 ° C (1,517 ° F), a process called calcination or lime-burning, to liberate a molecule of carbon dioxide (CO2), leaving quicklime.

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic, alkaline, crystalline solid at room temperature.



Anhydrous sodium peroxide is generally prepared by burning the sodium metal in the air or in a gentle stream of oxygen. The octahydrate can be easily prepared by a simple neutralization reaction with hydrogen peroxide (a weak acid) and sodium hydroxide. It is recommended to use dilute solutions of hydrogen peroxide, since the side reaction of the decomposition of H2O2 prevails in concentrated solutions. The crystals can be displaced from the solution with ethanol.

Sodium salt of hydrogen peroxide. Its formula is Na2O2. It is somewhat unstable and a strong oxidizer.


It is formed as potassium reacts with oxygen in the air, along with potassium oxide (K2O) and potassium superoxide (KO2).

Potassium peroxide is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula K2O2.


MgO2 can be produced by mixing MgO with hydrogen peroxide to create magnesium peroxide and water. This being an exothermic reaction should be cooled and kept around 30–40 degrees Celsius. It is also important to remove as much iron from the reaction environment as possible due to iron’s ability to catalyze the degradation of the peroxide. The addition of oxygen stabilizers such as sodium silicate can also be used to help prevent the premature degradation of the peroxide. Regardless, a good yield from this reaction is only about 35%.

Magnesium peroxide (MgO2) is an odorless fine powder peroxide with a white to off-white color. It is similar to calcium peroxide because magnesium peroxide also releases oxygen by breaking down at a controlled rate with water. Commercially, magnesium peroxide often exists as a compound of magnesium peroxide and magnesium hydroxide.


Calcium peroxide is produced by combining calcium salts and hydrogen peroxide:

Ca (OH) 2 + H2O2 → CaO2 + 2 H2O

The octahydrate precipitates upon the reaction of calcium hydroxide with dilute hydrogen peroxide. Upon heating it dehydrates.

Calcium peroxide or calcium dioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula CaO2. It is the peroxide (O22−) salt of Ca2 +. Commercial samples can be yellowish, but the pure compound is white. It is almost insoluble in water.



Historically, sodium hydroxide was produced by treating sodium carbonate with calcium hydroxide in a metathesis reaction. (Sodium hydroxide is soluble while calcium carbonate is not.) This process was called causticizing.

Ca (OH) 2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (s) → CaCO3 ↓ + 2 NaOH (aq)

Pure sodium hydroxide is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 318 ° C (604 ° F) without decomposition, and with a boiling point of 1,388 ° C (2,530 ° F). It is highly soluble in water, with a lower solubility in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol. NaOH is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents.


Historically, KOH was made by adding potassium carbonate to a strong solution of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) The salt metathesis reaction results in precipitation of solid calcium carbonate, leaving potassium hydroxide in solution:

Ca (OH) 2 + K2CO3 → CaCO3 + 2 KOH

Filtering off the precipitated calcium carbonate and boiling down the solution gives potassium hydroxide (“calcinated or caustic potash”). This method of producing potassium hydroxide remained dominant until the late 19th century, when it was largely replaced by the current method of electrolysis of potassium chloride solutions.

Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.

Along with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), this colorless solid is a prototypical strong base. It has many industrial and niche applications, most of which exploit its caustic nature and its reactivity towards acids.


Combining a solution of many magnesium salts with alkaline water induces precipitation of solid Mg (OH) 2:

Mg2 + + 2 OH− → Mg (OH) 2

Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg (OH) 2. It occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It is a white solid with low solubility in water


Calcium hydroxide is produced commercially by treating lime with water:

CaO + H2O → Ca (OH) 2

In the laboratory it can be prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide.

inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder



In 1861, the Belgian industrial chemist Ernest Solvay developed a method to convert sodium chloride to sodium carbonate using ammonia and carbon dioxide:

NaCl + NH3 + CO2 + H2O → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

inorganic compound with the formula Na2CO3 and its various hydrates. All forms are white, water-soluble salts. All forms have a strongly alkaline taste and give moderately alkaline solutions in water.


Potassium carbonate is prepared commercially by the reaction potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide:

2 KOH + CO2 → K2CO3 + H2O

inorganic compound with the formula K2CO3. It is a white salt, which is soluble in water. It is deliquescent, often appearing a damp or wet solid.


Magnesium carbonate can be prepared in laboratory by reaction between any soluble magnesium salt and sodium bicarbonate:

MgCl2(aq) + 2NaHCO3(aq) → MgCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

Magnesite consists of white trigonal crystals. The anhydrous salt is practically insoluble in water, acetone, and ammonia. All forms of magnesium carbonate react in acids. Magnesium carbonate crystallizes in the calcite structure where in Mg2 + is surrounded by six oxygen atoms.


calcium carbonate is prepared from calcium oxide. Water is added to give calcium hydroxide then carbon dioxide is passed through this solution to precipitate the desired calcium carbonate, referred to in the industry as precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC):

CaO + H2O → Ca (OH) 2

Ca (OH) 2 + CO2 → CaCO3 ↓ + H2O

Calcium carbonate shares the typical properties of other carbonates. Notably it reacts with acids, releasing carbon dioxide (technically speaking, carbonic acid, but that disintegrates quickly to CO2 and H2O), releases carbon dioxide upon heating, called a thermal decomposition reaction, or calcination (to above 840 ° C in the case of CaCO3), to form calcium oxide, commonly called quicklime, with reaction enthalpy 178 kJ / mol.

Calcium carbonate will react with water that is saturated with carbon dioxide to form the soluble calcium bicarbonate. This reaction is important in the erosion of carbonate rock, forming caverns, and leads to hard water in many regions.



Sodium bicarbonate is produced industrially from sodium carbonate:

Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NaHCO3

Commercial quantities of baking soda are also produced by a similar method: soda ash, mined in the form of the ore trona, is dissolved in water and treated with carbon dioxide. Sodium bicarbonate precipitates as a solid from this solution.

Although of no practical value, NaHCO3 may be obtained by the reaction of carbon dioxide with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide:

CO2 + NaOH → NaHCO3

Sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na +) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3−). It is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.


It is manufactured by treating an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate with carbon dioxide:

K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 KHCO3

Decomposition of the bicarbonate occurs between 100 and 120 ° C (212 and 248 ° F):

2 KHCO3 → K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

This reaction is employed to prepare high purity potassium carbonate.

Inorganic compound with the chemical formula KHCO3. It is a white solid. It’s a non toxic base.


A suspension of magnesium hydroxide is treated with pressurized carbon dioxide, producing a solution of magnesium bicarbonate:

Mg (OH) 2 + 2 CO2 → Mg (HCO3) 2

It exist only in aqueous solution.

Light, white, unstable friable mass or powder. Odorless, unstable in solid form but exists in the liquid state. Insoluble in ethanol, almost insoluble in water (0.077 g per 100 mL).


Attempts to prepare compounds such as solid calcium bicarbonate by evaporating its solution to dryness invariably yield instead the solid calcium carbonate:

Ca (HCO3) 2 (aq) → CO2 (g) + H2O (l) + CaCO3 (s).

Very few solid bicarbonates other than those of the alkali metals except lithium and ammonium ion are known to exist.

It has a chemical formula Ca (HCO3) 2. The term does not refer to a known solid compound; it exists only in aqueous solution containing the calcium (Ca2 +), bicarbonate (HCO − 3), and carbonate (CO2−3) ions, together with dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2). The relative concentrations of these carbon-containing species depend on the pH; bicarbonate predominates within the range 6.36–10.25 in fresh water.



Salt is currently mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from brine wells and salt lakes. Mining of rock salt is also a major source. Although it forms easily through the combination of its component elements sodium and chlorine

2Na (s) + Cl2 (g) → 2NaCl (s)

it is a combustive reaction, the violence is such it is not intentionally used.

It is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1: 1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g / mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl.


The two reactants are Potassium and Chlorine gas, and the product is Potassium Chloride.

2 K (s) + Cl2 (g) ———> 2KCl (s)

It is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. It is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance. The solid dissolves readily in water and its solutions have a salt-like taste.


In the Dow process, magnesium chloride is regenerated from magnesium hydroxide using hydrochloric acid:

Mg (OH) 2 (s) + 2 HCl → MgCl2 (aq) + 2 H2O (l)

It can also be prepared from magnesium carbonate by a similar reaction.

It’s formula is MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2 (H2O) x. These salts are typical ionic halides, being highly soluble in water. The hydrated magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water.


In much of the world, calcium chloride is derived from limestone as a by-product of the Solvay process, which follows the net reaction below:

2 NaCl + CaCO3 → Na2CO3 + CaCl2

It is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white colored crystalline solid at room temperature, highly soluble in water.



Mannheim: 2 NaCl + H2SO4 → 2 HCl + Na2SO4


4 NaCl+2 SO2+ O2 + 2 H2O → 4 HCl + 2Na2SO4

It is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates. All forms are white solids that are highly soluble in water.


The process involves intermediate formation of potassium bisulfate, an exothermic reaction that occur at room temperature:

KCl + H2SO4 → HCl + KHSO4

The second step of the process is endothermic, requiring energy input:

KCl + KHSO4 → HCl + K2SO4

It is the inorganic compound with formula K2SO4. It is a white water-soluble solid.


The monohydrate, MgSO4 · H2O is found as the mineral kieserite. It can be prepared by heating the hexahydrate to approximately 150 ° C. Further heating to approximately 200 ° C gives anhydrous magnesium sulfate.

It is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4 (H2O) x where 0≤x≤7. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4 · 7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt.


The compound exists in three levels of hydration corresponding to different crystallographic structures and to different minerals in nature:

CaSO4 (anhydrite): anhydrous state.

CaSO4 · 2 H2O (gypsum and selenite (mineral)): dihydrate.

CaSO41⁄2 H2O (bassanite): hemihydrate, also known as plaster of Paris. Specific hemihydrates are sometimes distinguished: α-hemihydrate and β-hemihydrate.

Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. All forms are white solids that are poorly soluble in water.

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